Its name is a reference to the fact that it is shooting the material through an artillery barrel as if it were a projectile. [11], Thin Man was 17 feet (5.2 m) long, with 38-inch (97 cm) wide tail and nose assemblies, and a 23-inch (58 cm) midsection. Aerial view of the aftermath of the Trinity test. [1]. Pumpkin bombs were conventional aerial bombs developed by the Manhattan Project and used by the United States Army Air Forces against Japan during World War II. The "Fat Man" bomb would be round and fat and was named after Sydney Greenstreet's character in The Maltese Falcon .

[2], Oppenheimer, reviewing his options in early 1943, gave priority to the gun-type weapon, [2] but as a hedge against the threat of pre-detonation, he created the E-5 Group at the Los Alamos Laboratory under Seth Neddermeyer to investigate implosion.

The cyclotron-produced isotopes on which the original measurements had been made has much lower traces of plutonium-240. The challenges facing the design of the plutonium, The Los Alamos Laboratory, also known as Project Y, was a secret laboratory established by the Manhattan Project and operated by the University of California during World War II. aircraft to carry. After over a year of design and testing from 1942 to 1944, the development of the Thin Man nuclear bomb was ultimately abandoned due to … Posted on September 29, 2020 by . "Fat Man" was the codename for the nuclear bomb that was detonated over the Japanese city of Nagasaki by the United States on 9 August 1945. It was decided that the plutonium gun would receive the bulk of the research effort, since it was the project with the least amount of uncertainty involved. input other than typesetting and referencing guidelines. It was mainly used for testing and training purposes, which included combat missions flown with pumpkin bombs by the 509th Composite Group. Norris Edwin Bradbury, was an American physicist who served as Director of the Los Alamos National Laboratory for 25 years from 1945 to 1970. It was assumed that the uranium gun-type bomb could be more easily adapted from it. In September 1952 he was charged with designing, building and testing a thermonuclear weapon, popularly known as a hydrogen bomb. Parsons, who had developed the proximity fuze for the Navy, ran the division, and handled liaison with other agencies. Weight was around 8,000 pounds (3,600 kg) for the final weapon model. One component would serve as a "bullet" and He chose them based on their design shapes; the "Thin Man" would be a very long device, and the name came from the Dashiell Hammett detective novel The Thin Man and series of movies by the same name. With Paul Newman, Dwight Schultz, Bonnie Bedelia, John Cusack. However, the American Boeing B-29 Superfortress could be modified to carry it by removing part of the bulkhead under the main wing spar and some oxygen tanks located between its two bomb bays. [1] L. Hoddeson et al., Critical Assembly: I think both were dropped by the same plane, the Enola Gay, and I don't think they could equip it with more than one bomb at a time.

The specifications of such a design were Bomb Shape Testing. [2] After over a year of design While full-scale Thin Man tubes took months to produce, these were readily and easily obtained. 1943-1945 (Cambridge University Press, 1993). [5] [6], Oppenheimer assembled a team at the Los Alamos Laboratory to work on plutonium gun design that included senior engineer Edwin McMillan and senior physicists Charles Critchfield and Joseph Hirschfelder. Its development was aborted when it was discovered that the spontaneous fission rate of their nuclear-reactor-bred plutonium was too high for use in a gun-type design, due to the too high concentration of the isotope plutonium-240. A polonium-210-beryllium initiator was chosen because polonium 210 has a 140-day half life, which allowed it to be stockpiled, and it could be obtained from naturally-occurring ores from Port Hope, Ontario.

Nicknamed "Fat Man," the plutonium implosion-type bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. Conant informed the director of the Manhattan Project, Brigadier General Leslie R. Groves, Jr., who in turn assembled a special committee consisting of Lawrence, Compton, Oppenheimer, and McMillan to examine the issue. As the plutonium was produced in the nuclear reactors at Hanford, Washington, it was discovered that the plutonium was not as pure as the initial samples from Lawrence's Radiation Laboratory. The wartime laboratory occupied buildings that had once been part of the Los Alamos Ranch School. [7], Hirschfelder headed the E-8 Interior Ballistics Group. [11] The modified glider mechanisms used to suspend the bomb in the bomb bay had caused all four malfunctions, due to the great weight of the bombs.

[1] As a result, modified B-29 aircrafts with oxygen A Technical History of Los Alamos During the Oppenheimer Years, Oppenheimer requested that it also be manufactured in the X-10 Graphite Reactor at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, or, when they became available, the reactors at the Hanford Site. Implosion-type bombs were determined to be significantly more efficient in terms of explosive yield per unit mass of fissile material in the bomb, because compressed fissile materials react more rapidly and therefore more completely. [1] A uranium based gun-type weapon design and the The committee concluded that any problems could be overcome by requiring higher purity. [20] The distance required to accelerate the plutonium to speeds where predetonation would be less likely would need a gun barrel too long for any existing or planned bomber. [5], These four created and tested all the elements of the Thin Man design between April 1943 and August 1944. [19], In April 1944, experiments by Emilio G. Segrè and his P-5 Group at Los Alamos on the newly reactor-produced plutonium from Oak Ridge and the Hanford site showed that it contained impurities in the form of the isotope plutonium-240. 1942 organized by Robert Oppenheimer in Chicago, Illinois and Berkeley, Its development was aborted when it was discovered that the spontaneous fission rate of nuclear reactor-bred plutonium was too high for use in a gun-type design. A gun-type design was chosen, in which two sub-critical masses would be brought together by firing a "bullet" into a "target". A base camp was constructed, and there were 425 people present on the weekend of the test. The bombs failed to release immediately, frustrating calibration tests. removed were used for testing of the device at full scale. An early effort of the Manhattan Project, the massive 17 foot/5.2 meter “Thin Man” was a Plutonium-fueled “gun-type” device, thought to be a relatively certain design, and conceived before Plutonium was even successfully bred in a reactor. and testing from 1942 to 1944, the development of the Thin Man nuclear As the head of the E-6 Projectile, Target, and Source Group, Critchfield calculated critical masses, and instituted a system of live testing with scale models using 20 mm cannon and 3-inch guns. All other rights, including commercial rights, are reserved to the Hirschfelder had been working on internal ballistics. "The Atomic Bomb," Physics 241, Stanford List of ranks in the fire, police, jail, and corrections services of the Philippines, People of the American Civil War by state, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, World War II aerial bombs of the United States, Abandoned military projects of the United States,

First, the immense length of the bomb necessary to allow the turned their efforts towards developing the implosion bomb. He served as deputy director of the laboratory from 1972 until his retirement in 1974.

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